# To Infinity...And Beyond!

This weekly journal thing has been good for me. I've been fairly productive since starting this goal of one entry a weeks, so for my third week I have some Good Stuff™ for all of you reading: infinite terrain and a significant performance boost.

### Infinite Terrain

Perhaps my favourite update of the week is that I finally got around to making my terrain infinite. You can go on forever and ever and have plenty of terrain to keep you occupied. Right now it's a very naive process every frame:

Compute $P$, the chunk the player is located in.

If $\medspace P$ is different from the previous frame, add all chunks $C$ with $|P - C|_\infty \le R$ to queue $Q$. That is, all chunks within a square of radius $\thinspace R$ around the player.

Destroy any existing chunks $C$ with $|P - C|_\infty \gt R$.

If $Q$ is nonempty, load $n$ chunks from $Q$ that have yet to be loaded.

Right now I have $R$ = 15 and $n$ = 10. As you can see, this is a very naive approach, but for now it gets the job done. All of the work happens in the main loop, but eventually I'll move chunk loading off the main thread. I actually modified my chunk code this week to lazily construct the vertex buffer/array, so moving this off the main thread should be straightforward.

### Performance Boost

After implementing infinite terrain, I realized the performance was incredibly poor. After some investigation I found the major issue here was that my per-voxel data was too large. Originally I was sending over 9 floats per voxel: position, normal, texture coordinates. Two issues here:

1. Every voxel was getting 3 floats for a normal that could be one of 6 values!
2. u/v texture coordinates were either 0 or 1, so we really only need 1 bit for each.

So I compacted my vertex array down to 3 floats and 2 integers: 3 floats for the voxel position, 1 integer for the texture coordinates, and 1 integer for the face index. The normal was easy to take care of: send over a face index and use that to index into an array of normals. The texture coordinates are packed into a single integer:

• Bit 0 is the u texture coordinate.
• Bit 1 is the v texture coordinate.
• Bits 2-31 are the texture atlas index.

This could be a problem in the future if I wanted to combine adjacent voxels into a single quad or perhaps animate the texture coordinates, but for now this will do. Here's what the before and after looks like for the texture part of my vertex shader:

1// Before 2texCoords = in_TexCoords; 3 4// After 5texCoords = vec3(in_TextureData & 0x1, (in_TextureData >> 1) & 0x1, in_TextureData >> 2);

So a little more complexity for a pretty big boost. I was originally running at about 23 ms/frame and this change brought it down to about 13 ms/frame. Some other ideas I have for performance boosts:

• I currently bind and draw every loaded chunk, even those that are not within the view of the camera. I could do a quick check to find which chunks are actually in the camera's viewing frustrum and render only those.
• Have my meshing algorithm merge similar, adjacent voxels into a single quad so that less vertices are sent to the GPU.
• Some kind of level-of-detail (LOD) for my chunks. To be able to load more chunks I could have various levels of detail for the chunks (think texture mipmaps, but for meshes). I have some ideas for this, but not sure how they'll pan out. Either way, having LOD for my chunks could mean being able to view huge amounts of terrain. I've always enjoyed being immersed in an environment that feels grand.